With Madelyn Glickfeld of the University of California Extension Program, we have conducted two surveys (in 1988 and 1992) of most California cities and counties to document local enactment of measures designed to slow or redirect growth. We were able to document around 1500 local growth measures in existence in California jurisdictions at the beginning of 1993.

We have shown that local growth control is partly a response to regional population growth, but is also a response to a lack of local infrastructure funding. We have further shown that the consequences of local growth control measures have restricted rental housing production in the enacting jurisdictions, pushing it to the urban periphery, and that minorities have been particularly affected.

Here is a Graph of Growth Control Measures Enacted Per Year graph from the study.

We also examined interjurisdictional land use conflicts.


  • Ned Levine,"The effects of local growth controls on regional housing production and population redistribution in California", Urban Studies. 1999, 36(12).

  • Madelyn Glickfeld and Ned Levine, Regional Growth... Local Reaction: The Enactment and Effects of Local Growth Control and Management Measures in California. 1992, Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.